Aetna, Cigna and others consider all of the following procedures experimental and investigational because their effectiveness has not been established:
Autologous osteochondral mosaicplasty in the treatment of articular cartilage defects/lesions;
Hybrid autologous chondrocyte implantation/osteochondral autograft transfer system (OATS) technique for the treatment of osteochondral defects;
OATS in the treatment of articular cartilage defects/lesions;
Osteochondral autograft transplantation to repair chondral defects of the elbow, patellar, shoulder, or other joints.